Conflict Art: Peace Sign Paradox


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Wars of the 20th and 21st Centuries: Piero Scaruffi

Useful information from Pierro Scarfuri: Wars and Casualties of the 20th and 21st Centuries

(slowly extending it back to the 19th century as i find data)by Piero Scaruffi

160 million people died in wars during the 20th century

(See also Modern Genocides)

TM, ®, Copyright © 2009 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.

1860-65: USA civil war (628,000)
1886-1908: Belgium-Congo Free State (8 million)
1898: USA-Spain & Philippines (220,000)
1899-02: British-Boer war (100,000)
1899-03: Colombian civil war (120,000)
1899-02: Philippines vs USA (20,000)
1900-01: Boxer rebels against Russia, Britain, France, Japan, USA against rebels (35,000)
1901-32: Saudis vs Arabian kingdoms (?)
1903: Ottomans vs Macedonian rebels (20,000)
1904: Germany vs Namibia (65,000)
1904-05: Japan vs Russia (150,000)
1910-20: Mexican revolution (250,000)
1911: Chinese Revolution (2.4 million)
1911-12: Italian-Ottoman war (20,000)
1912-13: Balkan wars (150,000)
1915-23: Ottoman genocides (1.2 million Armenians, 500,000 Assyrians, 350,000 Greek Pontians and 480,000 Anatolian Greeks)
1914-18: World War I (20 million)
1916: Kyrgyz revolt against Russia (120,000)
1917-21: Soviet revolution (5 million)
1917-19: Greece vs Turkey (45,000)
1918-20: Russian civil war (1 million)
1919-21: Poland vs Soviet Union (27,000)
1928-37: Chinese civil war (2 million)
1931: Japanese Manchurian War (1.1 million)
1932-33: Soviet Union vs Ukraine (10 million)
1932: “La Matanza” in El Salvador (30,000)
1932-35: “Guerra del Chaco” between Bolivia and Paraguay (117.500)
1934: Mao’s Long March (170,000)
1936: Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia (200,000)
1936-37: Stalin’s purges (13 million)
1936-39: Spanish civil war (600,000)
1937-45: Japanese invasion of China (500,000)
1939-45: World War II (55 million) including holocaust and Chinese revolution
1946-49: Chinese civil war (1.2 million)
1946-49: Greek civil war (50,000)
1946-54: France-Vietnam war (600,000)
1947: Partition of India and Pakistan (1 million)
1947: Taiwan’s uprising against the Kuomintang (30,000)
1948-1958: Colombian civil war (250,000)
1948-1973: Arab-Israeli wars (70,000)
1949-: Indian Muslims vs Hindus (20,000)
1949-50: Mainland China vs Tibet (1,200,000)
1950-53: Korean war (3 million)
1952-59: Kenya’s Mau Mau insurrection (20,000)
1954-62: French-Algerian war (368,000)
1958-61: Mao’s “Great Leap Forward” (38 million)
1960-90: South Africa vs Africa National Congress (?)
1960-96: Guatemala’s civil war (200,000)
1961-98: Indonesia vs West Papua/Irian (100,000)
1961-2003: Kurds vs Iraq (180,000)
1962-75: Mozambique Frelimo vs Portugal (10,000)
1962-75: Angolan FNLA & MPLA vs Portugal (50,000)
1964-73: USA-Vietnam war (3 million)
1965: second India-Pakistan war over Kashmir
1965-66: Indonesian civil war (250,000)
1966-69: Mao’s “Cultural Revolution” (11 million)
1966-2016: Colombia’s civil war (200,000)
1967-70: Nigeria-Biafra civil war (800,000)
1968-80: Rhodesia’s civil war (?)
1969-: Philippines vs the communist Bagong Hukbong Bayan/ New People’s Army (40,000)
1969-79: Idi Amin, Uganda (300,000)
1969-02: IRA – Norther Ireland’s civil war (3,000)
1969-79: Francisco Macias Nguema, Equatorial Guinea (50,000)
1971: Pakistan-Bangladesh civil war (500,000)
1972-2014: Philippines vs Muslim separatists (Moro Islamic Liberation Front, etc) (150,000)
1972: Burundi’s civil war (300,000)
1972-79: Rhodesia/Zimbabwe’s civil war (30,000)
1974-91: Ethiopian civil war (1,000,000)
1975-78: Menghitsu, Ethiopia (1.5 million)
1975-79: Khmer Rouge, Cambodia (1.7 million)
1975-89: Boat people, Vietnam (250,000)
1975-87: civil war in Lebanon (130,000)
1975-87: Laos’ civil war (184,000)
1975-2002: Angolan civil war (500,000)
1976-83: Argentina’s military regime (20,000)
1976-93: Mozambique’s civil war (900,000)
1976-98: Indonesia-East Timor civil war (600,000)
1976-2005: Indonesia-Aceh (GAM) civil war (12,000)
1977-92: El Salvador’s civil war (75,000)
1979: Vietnam-China war (30,000)
1979-88: the Soviet Union invades Afghanistan (1.3 million)
1980-88: Iraq-Iran war (435,000)
1980-92: Sendero Luminoso – Peru’s civil war (69,000)
1984-: Kurds vs Turkey (35,000)
1981-90: Nicaragua vs Contras (60,000)
1982-90: Hissene Habre, Chad (40,000)
1983-: Sri Lanka’s civil war (70,000)
1983-2002: Sudanese civil war (2 million)
1986-: Indian Kashmir’s civil war (60,000)
1987-: Palestinian Intifada (4,500)
1988-2001: Afghanistan civil war (400,000)
1988-2004: Somalia’s civil war (550,000)
1989-: Liberian civil war (220,000)
1989-: Uganda vs Lord’s Resistance Army (30,000)
1991: Gulf War – large coalition against Iraq to liberate Kuwait (85,000)
1991-97: Congo’s civil war (800,000)
1991-2000: Sierra Leone’s civil war (200,000)
1991-2009: Russia-Chechnya civil war (200,000)
1991-94: Armenia-Azerbaijan war (35,000)
1992-96: Tajikstan’s civil war war (50,000)
1992-96: Yugoslavian wars (260,000)
1992-99: Algerian civil war (150,000)
1993-97: Congo Brazzaville’s civil war (100,000)
1993-2005: Burundi’s civil war (200,000)
1994: Rwanda’s civil war (900,000)
1995-: Pakistani Sunnis vs Shiites (1,300)
1995-: Maoist rebellion in Nepal (12,000)
1998-: Congo/Zaire’s war – Rwanda and Uganda vs Zimbabwe, Angola and Namibia (3.8 million)
1998-2000: Ethiopia-Eritrea war (75,000)
1999: Kosovo’s liberation war – NATO vs Serbia (2,000)
2001-: Afghanistan’s liberation war – USA & UK vs Taliban (40,000)
2001-: Nigeria vs Boko Haram (20,000)
2002-: Cote d’Ivoire’s civil war (1,000)
2003-11: Second Iraq-USA war – USA, UK and Australia vs Saddam Hussein’s regime and Shiite squads and Sunni extremists (160,000)
2003-09: Sudan vs JEM/Darfur (300,000)
2004-: Sudan vs SPLM & Eritrea (?)
2004-: Yemen vs Houthis (?)
2004-: Thailand vs Muslim separatists (3,700)
2007-: Pakistan vs PAkistani Taliban (38,000)
2011-: Iraq’s civil war after the withdrawal of the USA (150,000)
2012-: Syria’s civil war (320,000)
2013-: ISIS in Syria, Iraq, Libya (?)
2013-15: South Sudan vs rebels (10,000)
2014-16: Ukraine’s civil war (9,500)

Arab-Israeli wars

  • I (1947-49): 6,373 Israeli and 15,000 Arabs die
  • II (1956): 231 Israeli and 3,000 Egyptians die
  • III (1967): 776 Israeli and 20,000 Arabs die
  • IV (1973): 2,688 Israeli and 18,000 Arabs die
  • Intifada I (1987-92): 170 Israelis and 1,000 Palestinians
  • Intifada II (2000-03): 700 Israelis and 2,000 Palestinians
  • Israel-Hamas war (2008): 1,300 Palestinians

Main sources:

  • Charny: Genocide – A Critical Bibliographic Review (1988)
  • Stephane Courtois: Black Book on Communism (1995)
  • Clodfelter: Warfare and Armed Conflicts (1992)
  • Elliot: Twentieth Century Book of the Dead (1972)
  • Bouthoul: A List of the 366 Major Armed Conflicts of the period 1740-1974, Peace Research (1978)
  • R.J. Rummel: Death by Government – Genocide and Mass Murder (1994)
  • Matt White’s website
  • Several general textbooks of 20th century history
  • Sources vary, and it is difficult to find one reliable source for everything. Many of these numbers keep changing.
  • Caution: In the age of Wikipedia there is also the problem that numbers tend to escalate dramatically as people on each side keep claiming higher and higher casualties. If one had to believe Wikipedia, the Middle East would be depopulated by now (instead of having consistently experienced a population boom).
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Our Tasks

“The tasks that have been entrusted to us are often difficult. Almost everything that matters is difficult and everything matters.

from Letters to a Young Poet by Rainer Maria Rilke 1903.

(PS When I worked for the US military I always liked their use of the word tasking: something you were accountable to do.)

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Handling Sexual Harrassment: West Wing Style

My favorite West Wing clip illustrates come uppance and also the best possible cure for sexual harrassment: it also shows the value of a good BATNA, best alternative to a negotiated agreement, in this case the Secret Service..



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“Learning to Die in the Anthropocene” by Roy Scranton

Well I just read in one sitting Roy Scranton’s “Learning to Die in the Anthropocene: Reflections on the End of a Civilization” (Hint the book is not about individual, but imminent civilizational mortality and can be summed up in one of the book’s most cogent sentences: “We are fucked”)

He basically suggests (using among others’, insights of the great conflict strategist Thomas Schelling) we have not the slightest chance of achieving the global cooperation and economic/emissions downsizing necessary to stave off the catastrophic effects of climate change that will hit us massively and exponentially from 20-30 years time, if not sooner. If you loved “CO2 The Movie”, you are going to love the sequel “Permafrost Methane Release” even more….I am glad I went for a minimum of 100 feet above sea level in all property purchases since 1980….

Given all this, he thinks we should cultivate the philosophy and the humanities to endure with Socratic and Stoic fortitude the end of civilization and maybe have a few hardy Stoics survive.

Great book 1) To make Trump problems seem as trivial and light weight and short term as the man himself 2) For teachers of humanity students (Madeleine and Rebecca) to provide context for their study of Homer, the Greeks, Sumerian archaelogy (Piotr you could teach a great course round it) etc. and 3) To show how the humanities have a great, though only very medium term, future.

I commend its 117 pages written by an Iraq War veteran who sees the middle east Iraq and Syria as the first real climate effect wars…and his own preparing to die each time he left his base their during the Non Insurgency in 2004 as a model for a civilization to prepare in the same way.

Posted in Conflict Book Reviews, Conflict History, Economic Conflict, Environmental Conflict, Ways to handle conflict | Tagged , , , , | 1 Comment

Restoration of Democracy Act 2018

The Democrats should have a team working on a Restoration of Democracy Act for proposing in 2018 that would:

1) Create non partisan boundary commissions to overturn all gerrymandering

2) Establish a Right to Vote Act to protect citizens right to vote and ensure affordable identification for all citizens

3) Require US Presidents to give up all vested commercial interests ahead of talking office

4) Require all Presidential Candidates to make public their previous 20 years tax records at the time of filing their Presidential candidacy

5) End the exemption of the President from Conflict of Interest legislation

6) Start the process of overturning Citizens United and restoring sensible campaign finance like the McCain-Feingold Act

7) Mandate investigation of all foreign government interventions in US elections

8) Restore the requirement for balance in news reporting that was abolished by Reagan administration.

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Pseudo-Revolutions from Above: Former Soviet Union and Trump’s America

Some history people don’t understand, at least as I see it. The fall of the former Soviet Union as described in “Revolution from Above: The Demise of the Soviet System” by David M. Kotz was not a bottom up revolution, as it is often lazily portrayed, but a top down one at least in Russia, engineered by the Soviet elite Nomenklatura as they were called.

They became envious in the mid 1980s of the American elite under Reagan, who were beginning to amass the fortunes of the Gilded Era. The Nomenklatura had lots of privilege but it was job dependent and not vast personal fortunes they could use to establish dynasties with or live outside Russia.

So they triggered the collapse of their own system and established a kleptocracy, stealing state assets as they were privatized. Meanwhile the people of Russia wanted to be like Sweden and instead they got Sicily. Out of the chaos and collapsing living standards and life expectancy, out of the anarchic kleptocracy an authoritarian regime of Putin eventually emerged using nationalism to divert attention from the rise of a plutocracy of the very rich.

Now the favor is being repeated in the reverse direction. The US mega rich counter envy the authoritarian power of Putin, and even more obscene wealth/power he has amassed and are seeking to emulate it in the US by electoral and media manipulation to create a similar kleptocracy here, with the same nationalist bigotry as the diversionary force to con the electoral turkeys to vote for Thanksgiving to come early over and over again. And Putin supports this as Russia remains an economic basket case and so all he can hope for is to benefit from international Trump caused chaos just as he benefitted from it within Russia. Unleash the dogs of chaos say Trump and Putin in chorus.

Gramsci Hegemony 101. So much easier to amass fortunes by the political-financial-kleptocratic-casino than actually making things people want or running a real democracy rather than a sham nationalist “populist” one.

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